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Development and validation of Chinese character writing strategies inventory for learners of chinese as a second language (CSL) /

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Development and validation of Chinese character writing strategies inventory for learners of chinese as a second language (CSL) /

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Student Theses
Publication Information:
Ye, Lijing
Hong Kong : The Education University of Hong Kong
Among the widely adapted Chinese language learning strategies (LLS), there is no much study about the learning strategies of Chinese character writing (CCW) (Simplified Chinese character handwriting in this thesis) for Chinese as second language (CSL) learners. There is even no established effective instrument to measure CCW learning strategies. In addition, the complex learning process involves not only learning strategies but also motivation, which has been identified as another critical learner variable and could affect learners' LLS as well as learning outcomes. It is a challenge to integrate CCW learning strategies with the variables simultaneously to understand the CCW learning process.The primary goal of this research aims to investigate learning strategies for CCW among CSL learners and develop a valid and reliable instrument, Chinese Character Writing Strategies Inventory (CCWSI), to quantify CCW strategies. Based on the literature review, a 31-item CCWSI is initially generated and first examined among 43 students in a Hong Kong international school in the pilot phase. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) result shows there are 2 factors, F1 indirect strategies and F2 knowledge-based strategies, reflecting the cognitive process of writing and the linguistic features of Chinese characters. This two-factor structure is further examined and verified by EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in the main phase of the study undertaken the data with 339 students from 4 universities in Vietnam. The two subscales, the form-based and sound-meaning-based strategies, are identified under F2, implying the basic processing routes for CCW. The finalized CCWSI includes 20 items with a two-layer internal structure: the upper-level layer 2 factors (10 items for each factor) and the two-subscale layer (5 items for each subscale). This internal structure reflects the cognitive process of CCW and reveals the linguistic features of Chinese characters.Furthermore, we investigate the role of CCW strategies in the CCW learning process taking account of CCW motivation, strategies, and performance simultaneously. To achieve the goal, we adopt and modify the Biggs' 3P model to integrate these variables as a dynamic system. The instruments, CCW motivation Questionnaire (modified from Biggs' R-SPQ-2F) and CCWSI, are employed to measure the 2 scales of CCW motives (Deep and Surface) and the 2 factors of CCWS (F1 and F2). Meanwhile, we use the dictation task to measure the performance of CCW of CSL learners. The correlation analysis demonstrates the significant direct effect of learning strategies on CCW performance, and motivation on learners' learning strategies. The variables of the CCW learning process are interrelated and interacted. Our formulated hypotheses are approved that Deep Motives promote CCW learning strategies, especially the indirect strategies, and foster a better result in CCW performance, though the mediation analysis of CCW learning strategies via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) does not show a significant indirect effect of motivation. Except the mediating role of CCW learning strategies in the learning process is still questionable and requires further investigation, educators should consider that motivation effectives on CCW learning strategies. From the pedagogical perspective, instructors' interventions should increase learners' intrinsic motivation, promote their use of effective strategies, and help them to achieve a better performance in CCW
Call Number:
LG51.H43 Dr 2022eb Yelj
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